This is based purely on my own observations and thoughts.
Phones have small (often plastic) lenses with no moving elements, and a lag between pushing the button and the picture taking, Compact cameras have much better lenses but often still have a shutter lag.
So for example, If you need to zoom a phone does this by making the picture bigger, the cameras do it be moving the elements in the lens, cameras have a bigger sensor therefore the quality of the image is generally better.
What do you want to take pictures of?
What do you want to do with the pictures?