This is based purely on my own observations and thoughts.
Phones have small (often plastic) lenses with no moving elements, and a lag between pushing the button and the picture taking, Compact cameras have much better lenses but often still have a shutter lag.
So for example, If you need to zoom a phone does this by making the picture bigger, the cameras do it be moving the elements in the lens, cameras have a bigger sensor therefore the quality of the image is generally better.
What do you want to take pictures of?
What do you want to do with the pictures?
Both Images below were taken on a modern smartphone and a DSLR - In each Image the left half is the smartphone camera, whilst the right half is a Nikon DSLR camera.. The phone was on its maximun zoom and he camera with an equivilent lens, both images were then enlarged to 200%, the difference is evident even at this scale.